Nutrition and feed for pregnant sows

The purpose of feeding pregnant sows is to make them have the right body condition and not be too fat at the time of delivery. Each sow is a different individual and will respond differently to the amount of feed given, although their weights are not much different. Therefore, it is very important to determine the appropriate amount of feeding for pregnant sows. Feeding on the one hand has to be sufficient to ensure the development of the fetus and better birth weight, on the other hand it can also achieve the ideal body weight gain and body condition of the sow. In practice, it was found that sows fed 2 to 2 kg of feed during pregnancy had more satisfactory results. Both sows and individual sows require higher weight gain, while larger sows need higher maintenance needs, so this recommended amount may be suitable for different types of sows. However, it is particularly important to point out that the status of individual sows must not be overlooked and special measures must be taken when necessary.

During pregnancy, sows can alleviate the undernutrition of the developing fetus. However, this is at the expense of consuming the sow's own tissue reserves. Therefore, sows should be provided with adequate nutrient rations, so that the sow's own reserves can continue to grow. For gilts, the protein and amino acid nutrient supply should be relatively stable from the finishing to the tillering stage in order to maximize protein deposition. Therefore, in the first gestation period, gilts should be provided with a diet containing sufficient protein so that the body's lean tissue deposition is not consumed. However, older sows require less protein in the diet and do not need high protein to deposit lean tissue. During pregnancy, the permitted weight gain of sows depends on the age and condition of the sow. In general, pregnant sows have the smallest gain, and their weight gain is consistent with their productivity. However, at the time of delivery, the sow must have sufficient body reserves to complete the breastfeeding, and the sows can be bred well shortly after weaning.

After each gestation period, the sow's weight gain is about 30 kg (or about 45?0 kg after each gestation period) so that the sow's reproductive efficiency can be maintained. During pregnancy, the body condition of the sow should be observed regularly and the feeding level adjusted if necessary. The best feeding level is not fixed because it is affected by many factors. 1) For body weight and body condition, every 30 kg increase in body weight requires an increase of approximately 600 kcal digestible energy or 250 g of feed per day for maintenance; 2) Environment, and a drop of 5°C per ambient temperature below the critical temperature (LCT). , Daily maintenance needs to increase about 750 kcal digestible energy or 250 grams of feed; 3) Feeding situation, when the single barn feeding, the sow activity, it is necessary to maintain the energy higher than the group of houses. Also, the critical temperature for single-row sows is generally higher than that for group-raised sows, and the single-row sow may need 600 kcal digestible energy or 200 grams of feed per day. 4) Health status: If the herd is severe, the pregnant sow may need 400 grams of feed per day to supplement the extra energy needed by the body. Due to the influence of the above factors, the actual feeding level changes greatly. After several births, feeding the sow with diets at lower feeding levels does not affect litter size. However, it is not desirable to do so because it may have an adverse effect on the life of the sow. In addition, sows fed high-level diets during pregnancy can reduce feed intake during lactation.

During sow pregnancy, increased energy intake mainly promotes weight gain in sows, and only a small increase in the birth weight of piglets. There is evidence that increasing the amount of feeding during the last two weeks of gestation can increase the birth weight and disease resistance of piglets. This only makes sense when the piglet's initial weight is low. In order to increase the average birth weight of the piglet by 0.1 kg, the sow is fed an additional 100 kg of feed during the gestation period. At the same time, increasing the amount of feeding two weeks before delivery can also make the digestive tract expand, which is beneficial to the early feed intake of sows.

In older sows, if the diet meets the requirement for essential amino acids, then a daily intake of crude protein from 180 g to 200 g is sufficient. Lysine is the most important amino acid, and its intake is 10 grams per day.

A small portion of the daily nutrients required for a pregnant sow is used for growth, and the vast majority of it is used for daily maintenance to require fetal growth and development. Assuming an average of 2 kilograms of feed per gestating sow per day, a sow diet containing at least 3.0 megacalorie of digestible energy, 12% crude protein, and 0.5% lysine per kilogram would meet its daily nutritional needs.

Pregnant sows, especially when fed high-energy feeds, may cause constipation. Distal fecal matter trapped in the rectum due to constipation will reduce the actual size of the pelvic opening and make the piglet's birth channel smaller. If constipation occurs, it is difficult for the sows to give birth and the time is long. As the delivery time increases, the piglets may suffer from hypoxia and the number of stillbirths may increase. In extreme cases, uterine fatigue can lead to a complete cessation of the birth process. The method of relieving constipation is to use fiber-rich feeds, such as sugar beet pulp and clams, which can greatly enhance fecal running. However, producers often do not want to use these raw materials because the proportion of low-energy raw materials used in feed formulations is higher. Mineral dumping agents are commonly used. Diets containing 0.75% potassium chloride or 1.00% magnesium sulfate can be greatly reduced.

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