The pest biological control of crops is somewhat environmentally friendly, safe to humans and animals, free from pollution and resistant to pests. The main methods for biological control of crop pests are:
One, pest control
That is, the use of natural enemy insects to control pests is called pest control, which includes the use of Yiqi. The use of natural enemies is the most widely used method for biological control. According to the way the natural enemies feed, they can be divided into two categories: predatory natural enemies and parasitic natural enemies.
1. Predatory natural enemies: There are many predatory natural enemies, of which the effect is good. Commonly used insects such as ladybugs, grasshoppers, hoverfly bugs, insectivores, insectivorous bugs, wasps, ground beetles, and predators, etc., have a large amount of insects in their natural enemies. During their growth and development, they must Eating several, dozens, or even hundreds of worms can complete development. Therefore, the control of pests in nature is very obvious. For example, the use of ladybugs, grasshoppers, wasps, etc. in cotton fields has achieved certain results in the control of aphids and cotton bollworms.
2. Parasitic natural enemies: These natural enemies parasitize the body of pests and feed on their body fluids and internal organs, causing the death of pests, including parasitoids and parasitic flies.
(1) Parasitic bee: It is a species of bees mainly parasitized in other insects. It has a wide range of agricultural pest control and has achieved certain results. Such as the use of Trichogramma, Trichomolum control pine caterpillar, corn borer, rice borer, rice leaf roller, soybean mealworm, Spodoptera exigua, soybean borer, bean hornworm, cotton bollworm, apple leaf roller moth and other agricultural Pests. All eggs, larvae and cockroaches that are parasitized cannot complete development and die in the middle.
(2) Parasitic flies: Mostly parasitized in the larvae or cocoons of the moths, and feed on the nutrients in their bodies, causing them to die. Parasites often lay eggs on larvae or cockroaches of other pests. After hatching, the larvae enter the body and feed on body fluids. Some eggs are produced on the leaves of plants and are eaten by pests and enter the digestive tract.
Second, the pathogenic microorganisms pest control
The use of pest pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.) to control pests, of which bacteria and fungi are the most widely used. The use of bacteria to control pests has the advantages of rapid propagation, low dosage, no residue, no pollution, and a small amount of chemical pesticides that can be used in combination to increase efficiency. In recent years, the use of insecticides has increased. At present, there are the following types of pathogenic microorganisms produced in China.
1. Bacteria: The most widely used insecticidal bacteria are Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus caterpillars, and Bacillus spp., which can control cabbage caterpillars, cotton bollworm, corn borer, rice borer, rice leaf roller, rice borer , pine caterpillars and other agricultural and forestry pests, such insecticidal bacteria have a strong poisoning effect on lepidopteran insects, harmless to humans, livestock, crops, beneficial insects, aquatic organisms, no residual poison, can be mixed with other pesticides.
2. Fungi: There are many types of fungi that can parasitize the parasite, of which Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are more common. China's use of Beauveria bassiana to control soybean pests, corn borers, pine caterpillars, ground tigers, cockroaches and other dozens of pests have a very good effect. At present, most of the strains produced are bacterial powders, which must be diluted according to the required concentration.
3. Viruses: The virus has specialization on the parasites of pests. Generally, a virus parasitizes only one kind of pest and is harmless to natural enemies. The pathogenic characteristics of the virus are: After the parasite is infected with the virus, the appetite diminishes for a few days to ten days, the action is dull, and finally climbs to the height, the stomach and foot grasp the object, and the body sags. The pathway for the virus to invade the worm body is mainly through the mouthparts. The infection states are all larvae; adults can carry the virus, but they do not die. The method of use is to spray or spray on the larvae during the incubation period, with about a dozen larvae equivalent per mu.
Third, the use of other beneficial animals to control pests
In addition to predatory and parasitic natural enemies, there are birds, frogs, and other animals that play a major role in controlling the number of pests. For example: swallowing pine caterpillars with gray magpies; feeding rice pests with ducks; preparing pink winter bollworms for wintering with chickens; using woodpeckers to prevent forest pests; frogs preying on the ground and rice fields Insects; bats eliminate a large number of nocturnal pests and moths such as chafers. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the organization, laws and regulations and technologies, and to strengthen the beneficial activities of beneficial animals so as to safeguard the high quality and high yield of agriculture and benefit people.
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