Rapeseed has wide adaptability and strong stress resistance. Its seed oil content is as high as 33% to 50%. It can produce good green edible oil. The protein content of cake after oil extraction is as high as 40%. It is a good protein feed and quality for livestock and poultry. Organic fertilizer. In addition, the organic acids secreted by the rapeseed roots act on the soil, which can increase the effectiveness of soil nutrients and can significantly improve the soil fertility. Its high yield cultivation techniques are as follows:
1 Variety selection
Select high yield, good quality, strong cold resistance, resistance to pests and diseases. Such as Zhongshuang No.4, Qinyou No.2, Qinyou No.3, Youyan No.7, and Zhongyouza No.1.
2 Soil Fertilization
2.1 Site Preparation. Rapeseed has a well-developed root system, and the main root is deep and widely distributed. The soil is deep, loose, and fertile. The plough depth should generally be more than 20 cm. Immediately after cultivating, the soil should be smashed to fill up the pores, and the soil should be filled with imaginary solids and the ground should be crushed to the ground in order to facilitate the sowing of seeds. 2.2 Fertilization. Base fertilizer is the main fertilizer, and organic manure and phosphorus, potassium, and boron fertilizers are applied at the end of one time. Nitrogen fertilizer is applied at the ratio of base fertilizer 50%, seedling fertilizer 30%, and manure fertilizer 20%. Before the cultivation, put into the decomposed organic fertilizer, and apply part of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in proportion. Generally, every 667m2 applies organic fertilizer 2 000 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 20-25 kg, superphosphate 25 kg, potash 10-15 kg, and borax 0.5-0.75 kg. For application methods, stratified fertilization should be adopted. Organic fertilizer should be applied to the ground before planting, and plowed with deep plowing. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron fertilizers should be applied to shallow soil layers of 10 to 15 cm in shallow plowing.
3 Suitable sowing
3.1 Sowing period. Sowing should be done as early as possible within the appropriate sowing date to allow the plants to accumulate more nutrients before winter and is conducive to safe wintering. The best sowing date for the Luzhou region is from September 25 to October 10.
3.2 sowing method.
1 on demand. Open a hole on demand, easy and convenient. On-demand hole deep 3 ~ 4 cm. The bottom of the hole should be flat, the soil should be broken, the line spacing should be straight, the distance between the plants should be uniform, the seeds should be the same in each hole, cover the thin soil after sowing, and suppress it properly to facilitate the emergence of seedlings.
2 Sowing. It is one of the measures to protect winter seedlings in winter. Generally about 10 cm depth, 300-400 g per 667 m2 dosage, shallow soil cover, appropriate repression.
3 broadcasts. Drilling can make full use of land, increase planting density, and facilitate management and mechanical operation. The spacing is 50 cm. The depth of the groove depends on the degree of emotion. It is usually 2 to 3 cm.
4 Field Management
4.1 seedlings, make up seedlings. For live rapeseed, especially on-demand rapeseed, because of the dry weather, the seeding rate is too large, and the seedlings are uneven, and the phenomenon of lack of seedlings and ridges is common. For the â€œseedlingsâ€, we must pay close attention to sparse seedlings to avoid overcrowding and form weak seedlings. At the same time, the rape seedlings were planted in the lack of seedlings.
4.2 Management before wintering
4.2.1 Cultivate earth. The cultivating soil not only can loosen the soil, increase the ground temperature, enhance the soil fertility, but also promote the growth of roots and enhance the ability to resist cold and fall. After the first seedling, the first cultivator was used. After the seedlings were watered, the second cultivator was performed. The third cultivator was mostly before the low temperature arrived.
4.2.2 The roots are buried and covered with soil. Before wintering, combine topdressing with deep cultivating between rape ridges and cultivars 2 times, and smash the soil to a small ridge. In this way, naturally forming two rows of rape has a high ridge, the furrow depth is 15-20cm, and the ridge surface is 45cm. Through deep cultivating, the big seedlings are encircled, the young seedlings are buried, and the tall seedlings are all enclosing the stems. On the basis of roots for cultivating earthworms, plow ploughs can be used for deep plowing and covering of the tops of the trees before the large thawing. The thickness of the covering roof should be 4 to 6 cm in order to cover the growing point without covering the seedlings. For degree. The soil cover time should be controlled in mid-late and late November, when the plants grow large lobes.
4.2.3 Sprinkle winter water. Drought and low temperature are the main reasons for winter dead seedlings in rape. The pouring of winter water can not only ensure the demand for water in rapeseed, but also increase the resistance. At the same time, it can also sink the soil and bridge the earth seam to prevent leakage of frozen roots.
4.2.4 Antifreeze, seedling control. Covering rapeseed pods with straw or ash and pig oxen to increase soil temperature and enhance frost resistance. It can also be sprayed with 15% paclobutrazol 35 g per 667 m2 and 50 kg water evenly. seedling.
4.3 Field Management in Spring
4.3.1 Early cultivator. Spring rains, temperature rises, weeds grow fast, and soil is easy to compact. We must do 1-2 times of cultivating and weeding in order to promote root growth.
4.3.2 Top dressing. The rape must have a large amount of fertilizer when it is convulsed to flower buds. It must be applied stably and reapplied. Generally, in the end of February and early March, urea is applied at 5 to 7.5 kg per 667 m2 of water, which is casted or sprinkled into manure. For rapeseed fields with long growing trend, swiftness, and premature senescence, early fertilization should be applied and fertilizer must be applied. Plants that thrive and large groups of plants should delay the application of manure. The flowering period is the peak period of rapeseed fertilization. Foliar spraying is an economical and effective fertilization method. For example, spraying 2% to 3% urea, 0.2% borax, and 2.5% enemy-killed mixture can prevent heat. , increase grain weight, treat aphids role.
4.3.3 pouring a good three water.
One is pouring back into Qingshui, which is generally performed in the middle or middle March.
The second is to use flowering water. The flowering period of rapeseed is the critical period of water demand. As the saying goes, â€œThe old wheat is poured and the vegetables are wateredâ€. Therefore, the flowering period should be diligently poured and lightly poured to keep the soil moist.
The third is pouring water, and finally into the grain filling stage after the flowering, should be poured with small water, to maintain about 70% of the relative soil moisture content.
4.3.4 Control of pests and weeds. The major diseases and pests of rapeseeds include sclerotiorum, downy mildew and aphids. Sclerotinia and sclerotiae are more common, with serious damage. In the early stage of disease, 50% carbendazim WP 100 g water 50 kg for conventional spray control. When the planting rate in the field reaches about 10%, it is sprayed with 2.5% enemy water, 20 ml watered 50-60 kg. In the field of grass-based weeds, we sprayed 10 to 55% of high-efficient straw and 30 to 40 ml of water and mixed water to 40 kg to spray weed stems and leaves; for broad-leaved weeds, we can use 50% control can be used in combination with grass herbicides, except for suspension concentrates.
4.4 Harvesting. Rapeseed is infinitely inflorescence, and it gradually blooms from top to bottom, and maturity is inconsistent. 70% to 80% of the plants in the whole field are ripe yellow and the pods are yellow-green. Most of the seeds and seed coats in the pods are harvested at the stage of discoloration and have the highest yield. The so-called â€œyellow bacheng, close to 10%â€. After harvest, choose sunny and timely threshing. It should not be piled up for too long. After the threshing, sufficient amouts should be carried out until the grain moisture content is stored or processed at 10% to 12%.
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